Methods 

Method Description
POST /insights/engagement/totals Retrieve total impressions and engagements for a collection of Tweets.
POST /insights/engagement/28hr Retrieve impressions and engagements for a collection of Tweets for the past 28 hours.
POST /insights/engagement/historical Retrieve impressions and engagements for a collection of Tweets for a period up to 4 weeks in duration, back to September 1, 2014.

Authentication  

The Engagement API requires the use of HTTPS and supports the use of both 3-Legged OAuth (1.0) and Application-Only OAuth (2.0). Most requests to the Engagement API require the use of 3-Legged OAuth. The following requests require this type of OAuth:

  • Any request to /totals to obtain Impressions or Engagements metric types, which are limited to owned Tweets
  • Any request to /28hr
  • Any request to /totals

Some requests to the Engagement API can be performed using Application-Only OAuth. The following request can be performed with this type of OAuth:

  • Any request to /totals to obtain Favorites, Replies, or Retweets metric types, which can be retrieved for any Tweet

For any request, you will need to set up a Twitter Application and corresponding API Key using the application management console available at apps.twitter.com. This Application ID will need to be approved by your account representative in order for your app to make requests to the Engagement API. Access tokens must be used to represent the “current user”, and requests made on behalf of a separate user must be signed with a valid token. Ensure that you’re encoding reserved characters appropriately within URLs and POST bodies before preparing OAuth signature base strings.

For more information on how to get started with OAuth, please visit the following links:


POST /insights/engagement/totals  

The totals endpoint provides the ability to retrieve current total impressions and engagements for a collection of up to 250 Tweets at a time.

Request Method HTTP POST
URL https://data-api.twitter.com/insights/engagement/totals
Content Type application/json
Compression Gzip. To make a request using Gzip compression, send an Accept-Encoding header in the connection request.
The header should look like the following:

Accept-Encoding: gzip
POST Format Requests can be sent as a POST request where the body is a JSON object containing a collection of Tweet ID’s and a desired grouping. The POST is formatted as an array with a "tweets", "engagements", and "groupings" object. Each request can have a maximum of 250 Tweet ID’s.

An example POST body looks like:

  {
    "tweet_ids": [
        "Tweet ID 1",
        "Tweet ID 2",
        "Tweet ID 3"
    ],
      "engagement_types": [
        "impressions",
        "engagements",
        "favorites"
    ],
    "groupings": {
      "grouping name": {
        "group_by": [
          "tweet.id",
          "engagement.type"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
        
Tweet ID's An array that includes the Tweet ID’s for the Tweets to be queried for engagement data. Please note that you are only able to requests data for Tweets that were created by the authenticating @handle. Up to 250 Tweets may be included per request, and Tweet ID’s must be represented as strings.
Engagement Types An array that includes the types of engagement metrics to be queried. The Totals endpoint supports only the following engagement types:
  • impressions, engagements, favorites, retweets, replies.
New! The /totals endpoint now supports the ability to retrieve Impressions and Engagements metrics for Tweets created within the last 90 days.

New! The /totals endpoint now supports the ability to retrieve Favorite, Retweet, and Reply metrics for any Tweet.
Groupings Results from the Engagement API can be returned in different groups to best fit your needs. You can include a maximum of 3 groupings per request.

For each grouping, you may define a custom grouping name to make it easier to refer to this grouping type in your application.

Once you have defined a grouping name, you can choose to group by one or more of the following values for the Totals endpoint:

  • tweet.id
  • engagement.type
Groupings are honored serially, so that you can change the desired result format by changing the order of your group_by values. An example grouping that will show metrics separated by Tweet ID and metric type looks like:

  "groupings": {
      "my grouping name": {
        "group_by": [
          "tweet.id",
          "engagement.type"
        ]
      }
    }
        
POST Size Limit Requests can be made for a maximum of 250 Tweet ID’s at a time.
Response Format JSON. The header of your request should specify JSON format for the response.
Rate Limit You will be rate limited by minute, as specified in your contract according to your level of access.
Example Request POST "https://data-api.twitter.com/insights/engagement/totals"

  {
    "tweet_ids": [
        "123456789",
        "223456789"
    ],
     "engagement_types": [
       "favorites",
       "replies",
       "retweets"
    ],
    "groupings": {
      "group1": {
        "group_by": [
        "tweet.id",
        "engagement.type"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
          
Example Response
  {
    "group1": {
      "123456789": {
        "favorites": "109",
        "replies": "41",
        "retweets": "88"
      },
      "223456789": {
        "favorites": "0",
        "replies": "2",
        "retweets": "0"
      }
    }
  }
          
Unavailable Tweet IDs For queries that include Tweet ID’s that have been made unavailable (e.g., have been deleted), appropriate data will be returned for all available Tweet IDs, and unavailable Tweet IDs will be referenced in an array called "unavailable_tweet_ids". For example:
  {
    "start": "2015-11-17T22:00:00Z",
    "end": "2015-11-19T02:00:00Z",
    "unavailable_tweet_ids": [
        "323456789"
    ],
    "group1": {
     "423456789": {
      "favorites": "67",
      "replies": "8",
      "retweets": 26
     }
    }
  }

POST /insights/engagement/28hr 

The 28 hour endpoint provides the ability to retrieve impressions and engagements for a collection of up to 25 Tweets for the past 28 hours. The 28 hour endpoint also provides the ability to request metrics for all supported individual metrics. For the full list of supported engagement metrics see Engagement Data.

Request Method HTTP POST
URL https://data-api.twitter.com/insights/engagement/28hr
Content Type application/json
Compression Gzip. To make a request using Gzip compression, send an Accept-Encoding header in the connection request.
The header should look like the following:

Accept-Encoding: gzip
POST Format Requests can be sent as a POST request where the body is a JSON object containing a collection of Tweet ID’s and a desired grouping. The POST is formatted as an array with a "tweets", "engagements", and "groupings" object. Each request can have a maximum of 25 Tweet ID’s.

An example POST body looks like:

  { 
    "tweet_ids": [
       "Tweet ID 1",
       "Tweet ID 2",
       "Tweet ID 3"
    ],
      "engagement_types": [
        "impressions",
        "engagements",
        "url_clicks",
        "detail_expands"
    ],
    "groupings": {
      "grouping name": {
        "group_by": [
          "tweet.id",
          "engagement.type",
          "engagement.hour"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
        
Tweet ID's An array that includes the Tweet ID’s for the Tweets to be queried for engagement data. Please note that you are only able to requests data for Tweets that were created by the authenticating @handle. The 28 hour endpoint supports up to a maximum of 25 Tweets per request, and Tweet ID’s must be represented as strings.
Engagement Types An array the types of engagement metrics to be queried.

For the 28 hour endpoint, requests that do not have a start and end date will return the last 28 hours by default.

For the 28 hour endpoint, "impressions", "engagements", and all individual engagement types are supported metrics. For the full list of supported engagement metrics see Engagement Data.
Groupings Results from the Engagement API can be returned in different groups to best fit your needs. You can include a maximum of 3 groupings per request.

For each grouping, you may define a custom grouping name to make it easier to refer to this grouping type in your application. Once you have defined a grouping name, you can choose to group by one or more of the following values:
  • tweet.id
  • engagement.type
  • engagement.day
  • engagement.hour
Groupings are honored serially, so that you can change the desired result format by changing the order of your group_by values. An example grouping that will show metrics separated by Tweet ID, metric type, and looks like:

  "groupings": {
    "my grouping name": {
      "group_by": [
        "tweet.id",
        "engagement.type",
        "engagement.day"
      ]
    }
  }
        

Groupings that have 4 “group_by” items are only valid if they use one of the following two orders. Requests that have 4 group_by items in a single grouping that are not one of the following will return an error. Additionally, only one grouping with 4 group_by items will be allowed per request.

"group_by": [
    "tweet.id",
    "engagement.type",
    "engagement.day",
    "engagement.hour"
  ]

"group_by": [
    "engagement.type",
    "tweet.id",
    "engagement.day",
    "engagement.hour"
  ]
      
POST Size Limit Requests can be made for a maximum of 25 Tweet ID’s at a time.
Response Format JSON. The header of your request should specify JSON format for the response.
Rate Limit You will be rate limited by minute, as specified in your contract according to your level of access.
Example Request POST "https://data-api.twitter.com/insights/engagement/28hr"

  { 
    "tweet_ids": [
       "123456789",
    ],
      "engagement_types": [
        "impressions",
        "engagements"
    ],
    "groupings": {
      "hourly-time-series": {
        "group_by": [
          "tweet.id",
          "engagement.type",
          "engagement.day",
          "engagement.hour"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
          
Example Response
  {
    "start": "2015-09-14T17:00:00Z",
    "end": "2015-09-15T22:00:00Z",
    "hourly-time-series": {
      "123456789": {
        "impressions": {
          "2015-09-14": {
            "17": "551",
            "18": "412",
            "19": "371",
            "20": "280",
            "21": "100",
            "22": "19",
            "23": "6"
          },
          "2015-09-15": {
            "00": "5",
            "01": "2",
            "02": "7",
            "03": "3",
            "04": "1",
            "05": "0",
            "06": "0",
            "07": "0",
            "08": "0",
            "09": "0",
            "10": "0",
            "11": "0",
            "12": "0",
            "13": "0",
            "14": "0",
            "15": "0",
            "16": "0",
            "17": "0",
            "18": "0",
            "19": "0",
            "20": "0",
            "21": "0"
          }
        },
        "engagements": {
          "2015-09-14": {
            "17": "0",
            "18": "0",
            "19": "0",
            "20": "0",
            "21": "0",
            "22": "0",
            "23": "0"
          },
          "2015-09-15": {
            "00": "0",
            "01": "0",
            "02": "0",
            "03": "0",
            "04": "0",
            "05": "0",
            "06": "0",
            "07": "0",
            "08": "0",
            "09": "0",
            "10": "0",
            "11": "0",
            "12": "0",
            "13": "0",
            "14": "0",
            "15": "0",
            "16": "0",
            "17": "0",
            "18": "0",
            "19": "0",
            "20": "0",
            "21": "0"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
          
Unavailable Tweet IDs For queries that include Tweet ID’s that have been made unavailable (e.g., have been deleted), appropriate data will be returned for all available Tweet IDs, and unavailable Tweet IDs will be referenced in an array called "unavailable_tweet_ids". For example:
{
    "start": "2015-11-17T22:00:00Z",
    "end": "2015-11-19T02:27:50Z",
    "unavailable_tweet_ids": [
        "323456789"
    ],
    "group1": {
     "423456789": {
      "favorites": "67",
      "replies": "8",
      "retweets": 26
     }
    }
  }

POST /insights/engagement/historical </a

The historical endpoint provides the ability to retrieve impressions and engagements for a collection of up to 25 Tweets for any period up to 4 weeks in duration. Currently, data older than September 1, 2014 cannot be requested from the API. The historical endpoint also provides the ability to request metrics for all supported individual metrics. For the full list of supported engagement metrics see Engagement Data.

Request Method HTTP POST
URL https://data-api.twitter.com/insights/engagement/historical
Content Type application/json
Compression Gzip. To make a request using Gzip compression, send an Accept-Encoding header in the connection request.
The header should look like the following:

Accept-Encoding: gzip
POST Format Requests can be sent as a POST request where the body is a JSON object containing a collection of Tweet ID’s and a desired grouping. The POST is formatted as an array with a "tweets", "engagements", and "groupings" object. Each request can have a maximum of 25 Tweet ID’s. Each request can be specified with a custom Start and End date up to four weeks in duration.

An example POST body looks like:

  { 
    "start": "2015-08-01",
    "end": "2015-08-15",
    "tweet_ids": [
       "Tweet ID 1",
       "Tweet ID 2",
       "Tweet ID 3"
    ],
      "engagement_types": [
        "impressions",
        "engagements",
        "url_clicks",
        "detail_expands"
    ],
    "groupings": {
      "grouping name": {
        "group_by": [
          "tweet.id",
          "engagement.type"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
        
Start and End Date A custom start and end date can be specified with the "start" and "end" values as part of the request. You must specify a start and end date that are not longer than 4 weeks in duration. The oldest possible start date at this time is September 1, 2014. End dates in the future are not supported. If no Start and End date are supplied, the API will default to the immediately previous 4 weeks.

The lowest granularity that data can be returned from the Engagement API is by hour. For any requests made with Start or End values that do not fall directly on an hourly boundary, requests will default to the nearest inclusive hour. For instance, a request with "start":"2015-07-01T12:24:00Z" and "end":"2015-07-10T08:37:00Z" will default to "start":"2015-07-01T12:00:00Z","end":"2015-07-10T09:00:00Z".
Tweet ID's An array that includes the Tweet ID’s for the Tweets to be queried for engagement data. Please note that you are only able to requests data for Tweets that were created by the authenticating @handle. The 4 week historical endpoint supports up to a maximum of 25 Tweets per request, and Tweet ID’s must be represented as strings.
Engagement Types An array that includes the types of engagement metrics to be queried.

For the 4 week historical endpoint, "impressions", "engagements", and all individual engagement types are supported metrics. For the full list of supported engagement metrics see Engagement Data.

Note: Currently there are three metrics that will display as zero for queries made before September 15, 2015: Favorites, Replies, and Retweets.
Groupings Results from the Engagement API can be returned in different groups to best fit your needs. You can include a maximum of 3 groupings per request.

For each grouping, you may define a custom grouping name to make it easier to refer to this grouping type in your application. Once you have defined a grouping name, you can choose to group by one or more of the following values:
  • tweet.id
  • engagement.type
  • engagement.day
  • engagement.hour
Groupings are honored serially, so that you can change the desired result format by changing the order of your group_by values.

An example grouping that will show metrics separated by Tweet ID, metric type, and hour looks like:

  "groupings": {
    "my grouping name": {
      "group_by": [
        "tweet.id",
        "engagement.type",
        "engagement.hour"
      ]
    }
  }
        

Groupings that have 4 “group_by” items are only valid if they use one of the following two orders. Requests that have 4 group_by items in a single grouping that are not one of the following will return an error. Additionally, only one grouping with 4 group_by items will be allowed per request.

"group_by": [
    "tweet.id",
    "engagement.type",
    "engagement.day",
    "engagement.hour"
  ]

"group_by": [
    "engagement.type",
    "tweet.id",
    "engagement.day",
    "engagement.hour"
  ]
      
POST Size Limit Requests can be made for a maximum of 25 Tweet ID’s at a time.
Response Format JSON. The header of your request should specify JSON format for the response.
Rate Limit You will be rate limited by minute, as specified in your contract according to your level of access.
Example Request POST "https://data-api.twitter.com/insights/engagement/historical"

  { 
    "start": "2015-08-01",
    "end": "2015-08-15",
    "tweet_ids": [
       "123456789",
       "223456789",
       "323456789"
    ],
      "engagement_types": [
        "impressions",
        "engagements",
        "url_clicks",
        "detail_expands"
    ],
    "groupings": {
      "types-by-tweet-id": {
        "group_by": [
          "tweet.id",
          "engagement.type"
        ]
      }
    }
  }
          
Example Response
  {
    "start": "2015-08-01T00:00:00Z",
    "end": "2015-08-15T00:00:00Z",
    "types-by-tweet-id": {
      "123456789": {
        "impressions": "0",
        "engagements": "0",
        "url_clicks": "0",
        "detail_expands": "0"
      },
      "223456789": {
        "impressions": "788",
        "engagements": "134",
        "url_clicks": "30",
        "detail_expands": "1323"
      },
      "323456789": {
        "impressions": "4",
        "engagements": "0",
        "url_clicks": "2",
        "detail_expands": "0"
      }
    }
  }
          
Unavailable Tweet IDs For queries that include Tweet ID’s that have been made unavailable (e.g., have been deleted), appropriate data will be returned for all available Tweet IDs, and unavailable Tweet IDs will be referenced in an array called "unavailable_tweet_ids". For example:
{
    "start": "2015-11-17T22:00:00Z",
    "end": "2015-11-19T02:27:50Z",
    "unavailable_tweet_ids": [
        "323456789"
    ],
    "group1": {
     "423456789": {
      "favorites": "67",
      "replies": "8",
      "retweets": 26
     }
    }
  }

Response Codes 

Status Text Description
200 OK The request was successful.
400 Bad Request Generally, this response occurs due to the presence of invalid JSON in the request, or where the request failed to send any JSON payload.
401 Unauthorized HTTP authentication failed due to invalid credentials. Check your OAuth keys and tokens.
404 Not Found The resource was not found at the URL to which the request was sent, likely because an incorrect URL was used.
429 Too Many Requests Your app has exceeded the limit on API requests.
500 Internal Server Error There was an error on Gnip's side. Retry your request using an exponential backoff pattern.
502 Proxy Error There was an error on Gnip's side. Retry your request using an exponential backoff pattern.
503 Service Unavailable There was an error on Gnip's side. Retry your request using an exponential backoff pattern.


Error Messages 

In various scenarios, the Engagement API will occur situation-specific error messages that your application should be equipped to deal with. The table below includes common examples of these error messages and how you should interpret them. Please note that in many cases the Engagement API will return partial results for available data with specific error messages as part of a 200 OK response with more information.


Error Message Description
"errors": [ "Your account could not be authenticated. Reason: Access token not found" ] An error in the authentication component of the request. The “Reason” should provide information that is helpful to troubleshoot the error. In cases where you are not able to resolve, please send the full error, including the “Reason”, to our support team.
"errors": [ "1 Tweet ID(s) are unavailable" ], "unavailable_tweet_ids": ["722449910553939968"] The Tweet ID or IDs you have requested are no longer available, usually indicating that they have been deleted or are no longer publicly available for another reason.
"errors":["Impressions & engagements for tweets older than 90 days (2016-01-29T21:00:00.000Z) are not supported"], "unsupported_for_impressions_engagements_tweet_ids":["687660640727502850"] The Tweet ID or IDs you have requested specific to the /totals endpoint are not 90 days or newer and are thus not available for returning the impressions or engagements metrics.
"errors":["Forbidden to access tweets: 721040847567859712"] The Tweet ID or IDs you have requested are not available based on the authentication token you are using to retrieve data on behalf of a third party.